^ For examples of Sanskrit loan words, see Zvelebil's The Smile of Murugan. [90][101] A king and his army must always be ready for war, and should launch a violent offensive, at the right place and right time, when the situation so demands and particularly against weak and corrupt kingdoms. "The Excellent Love Settings") which starts with an invocation to Vishnu, appear in the later Tirukkural. [134], Since the 1970s, the Kural text has been transliterated into ancient Tamil scripts such as the Tamil-Brahmi script, Pallava script, Vatteluttu script and others by Gift Siromoney of the International Institute of Tamil Studies (IITS, Madras Christian College). Beschi means thus 'those who swim the vast sea of miseries'. [3] Some of the commentaries of the 20th century include those by Thirumeni Rathina Kavirayar,[131] Ramanuja Kavirayar,[131] K. Vadivelu Chettiar,[132] Krishnampet K. Kuppusamy Mudaliar,[133] Iyothee Thass, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai, Thiru Vi Ka, Bharathidasan, M. Varadarajan, Namakkal Kavignar, Thirukkuralar V. Munusamy, Devaneya Pavanar, M. Karunanithi, and Solomon Pappaiah, besides several hundred others. Abstinence from Flesh (Vegetarianism) (, Chapter 34. [16] The Kural is also an oft-quoted Tamil work. While Gover translated only select couplets, Robinson translated the first two books of the Kural text. Udaiyar Koil Guna. [204] All the 1,330 verses of the Kural text are inscribed on bas-relief in the corridors in the main hall. [152] Just like Christian missionaries during the colonial era cast the work in their own Christian premises, phrases and concepts, some Dravidianists of the contemporary era reinterpret and cast the work to further their own goals and socio-political values. [125] According to Norman Cutler, Parimelalhagar's commentary interprets and maneuvers the Kural text within his own context, grounded in the concepts and theological premises of Hinduism. Translated only the first two sections, viz. [9][38] Mu Raghava Iyengar speculated that "valluva" in his name is a variation of "vallabha", the designation of a royal officer. [205] The sthala vriksham (holy tree of the temple) at the temple is the oil-nut or iluppai tree under which Valluvar is believed to have been born. Those who are free from blame and have the clear vision will not eat the meat of animals which have lost their life or which are slaughtered. The word ‘Kodi’ (Crore) used in 7 places in Thirukural. [176] The Tirukkural teaches that the ministers and people who work in public office should lead an ethical and moral life. [9] In a manner similar to speculations of the author's biography, there has been much speculation about his religion with no historical evidence. Thirukkural pdf free download. [9] The work is traditionally grouped under the Eighteen Lesser Texts series of the late Sangam works, known in Tamil as Patiṉeṇkīḻkaṇakku. The killing of animals is veritable hardness of heart; but the eating of their flesh is inequity indeed. 12. A good and strong kingdom must be protected with forts made of thick, high and impenetrable walls. The Thirukkural is one of the most revered ancient works in the Tamil language. The alleged low birth, high birth and being a pariah in the traditional accounts are also doubtful. [195] These were attended by several scholars, celebrities and politicians. Firstly, unlike Confucius, Valluvar was also a poet. The text also features a higher number of Sanskrit loan words compared with these older texts. The Tamil classic, Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets), has been translated into many major languages of the world. In: Yogi Shuddhananda Bharati (Trans.). The Abandonment of Reserve (, Chapter 133. It preaches simplicity and truth throughout its verses. It was translated into French by Monsieur Ariel in 1848. Thirukkural, also known as the Kural, is a classic of couplets or Kurals (1330 rhyming Tamil couplets) or aphorisms celebrated by Tamils. The text has been dated variously from 300 BCE to 5th century CE. [11][a] In addition, it highlights truthfulness, self-restraint, gratitude, hospitality, kindness, goodness of wife, duty, giving, and so forth,[12] besides covering a wide range of social and political topics such as king, ministers, taxes, justice, forts, war, greatness of army and soldier's honor, death sentence for the wicked, agriculture, education, abstinence from alcohol and intoxicants. [160] By 1925, the Kural literature has already appeared in more than 65 editions[160] and by the turn of the 21st century, it has crossed 500 editions. A… Zvelebil states that an additional few have uncertain etymology and that future studies may prove those to be Dravidian. A cir is a single or a combination of more than one Tamil word. [181] Incidentally, Valluvar differed from Confucius in two respects. Instability of Earthly Things (, Chapter 45. This has produced highly divergent interpretations of the original. John Lazarus and Mr. F W Ellis - For their English translation and explanation. [120], The Kural is one of the most reviewed of all works in Tamil literature, and almost every notable scholar has written exegesis or commentaries (explanation in prose or verse), known in Tamil as urai, on it. "[32] Zakir Hussain, former President of India, said, "Thirukkural is a treasure house of worldly knowledge, ethical guidance and spiritual wisdom. In these cases, the violations of the aram [in the earlier section] are justified [by Thiruvalluvar] in virtue of the special duties cast on the king and the justification is that 'a few wicked must be weeded out to save the general public' (TK 550)."[50]. [16], The work largely reflects the first three of the four ancient Indian aims in life, known as purushaarthas, viz., virtue (dharma), wealth (artha) and love (kama). [108][109] Following are some of the instances where Valluvar employs contradictions to expound the virtues. Non-injury is otherwise known as compassion; doing injury is heartlessness. ", The Kural text was authored by Thiruvalluvar (lit. [221] The work is commonly quoted in vegetarian conferences, both in India and abroad. Sri Aurobindo, for instance, has translated fifteen couplets of the Kural, including all the ten couplets from the opening chapter (in a different order from the original) and five from the second chapter, in 1919 as part of his translations of various other ancient works. It was translated into Latin by Constantius Joseph Beschi in 1730 (Ramasamy 2001). Historian K. K. Pillay assigned it to the early 1st century CE. Secondly, Confucius did not deal with the subject of conjugal love, for which Valluvar devoted an entire division in his work. "[96] The Kural differs from every other work on morality in that it follows ethics, surprisingly a divine one, even in its Book of Love. Assertion of the strength of Virtue (, Chapter 15. Many of these authors have translated the work into their languages. [104], The Kural text does not recommend democracy; rather it accepts a royalty with ministers bound to a code of ethics and a system of justice. [229][230] The concept of ahimsa or இன்னா செய்யாமை, which remains the moral foundation of vegetarianism and veganism, is described in the Kural chapter on non-violence (Chapter 32). [9][40] The traditional biographies not only are inconsistent, but also contain incredulous claims about the author of the Kural text. The Kural has been translated into English by more than 90 translators, both European and Indian. He theorizes that Valluvar was probably "a learned Jain with eclectic leanings", who was well acquainted with the earlier Tamil literature and also had knowledge of the Sanskrit texts. Professor Jahir Husain of Arabic Studies, University of Madras is the first to translate Thirukkural directly from Tamil to Arabic. The … [97] In the words of Gopalkrishna Gandhi, Valluvar maintains his views on personal morality even in the Book of Love, where one can normally expect greater poetic leniency, by describing the hero as "a one-woman man" without concubines. Mayuram Vishwanatha Shastri set all the verses to music in the early 20th century. (a) If it is asked what compassion is, it is not killing any living beings; If one is freed from delusion and has the wisdom spotless, Don’t hide behind the butcher’s blade saying, ‘He kills, I only eat’, If you wish, as you should, that your soul be liberated, This page was last edited on 5 December 2020, at 01:03. While Kindersley translated a selection of the Kural text, Ellis translated 120 couplets in all—69 of them in verse and 51 in prose. [87] Unlike Manusmriti, the Tirukurral does not give importance to castes or any dynasty of rulers and ministers. [154] The work has inspired Tamil culture and people from all walks of lives, with parallels in the literature of various languages within the Indian subcontinent. "[183][i], The Kural has been widely praised within and outside India for its universal, non-denominational values. Thirukkural (Sacred Couplets) in English. Thirukkural (Original in Tamil with English Translation) (Tamil) Hardcover – August 1, 1996 by W. H. Drew (Author), John Lazarus (Author) 5.0 out of 5 stars 2 ratings See all formats and editions It is an ethics text that expounds a universal, moral and practical approach to life. [180] While ahimsa remains the fundamental virtue of the Valluvarean tradition, Zen remains the central theme in Confucian tradition. 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