They have great potentials in metal pollution control and the biosorption of zinc and nickel by several strains of Spirulina, namely, Spirulina indica, Spirulina maxima, and Spirulina platensis, was investigated recently [22]. Photoautotrophic microorganisms, including cyanobacteria and microalgae, have garnered a great deal of attention for their capability to produce these chemicals from carbon dioxide, mineralized water, and solar energy. Cyanobacteria or Cyanophyta are the only form of oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria known to date. Here, the photoautotrophic metabolism is described as an integrated production process, in which fixated CO2 and N2 are essential raw materials processed through primary and secondary metabolic reactions powered by light-derived chemical energy. Metabolic engineering of cyanobacteria by redirecting glycogen catabolism through the oxidative pentose pathway was found to enhance intracellular NADPH concentrations and consequently improve the hydrogen yield. This strategy is designed to enable cells at the culture surface to capture only the amount of light that they require and allow greater penetration of excess light into the culture. Antiviral activity of extracts or compounds isolated from cyanobacteria has also been reported. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and less complex than eukaryotes. Otlypothrix brevis . Google Scholar. by overexpressing endogenous alcohol dehydrogenase and disrupting polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthetic pathway increased ethanol production up to 5500 mg/L [12] (Table 1). Mystery Bug - Unidentified filament. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. M. Miyake, M. Erata, and Y. Asada, “A thermophilic cyanobacterium, N.-S. Lau, C. P. Foong, Y. Kurihara, K. Sudesh, and M. Matsui, “RNA-seq Analysis provides insights for understanding photoautotrophic polyhydroxyalkanoate production in recombinant, H. Akiyama, H. Okuhata, T. Onizuka et al., “Antibiotics-free stable polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production from carbon dioxide by recombinant cyanobacteria,”, B. Wang, S. Pugh, D. R. Nielsen, W. Zhang, and D. R. Meldrum, “Engineering cyanobacteria for photosynthetic production of 3-hydroxybutyrate directly from CO, R. J. Spreitzer and M. E. Salvucci, “Rubisco: structure, regulatory interactions, and possibilities for a better enzyme,”, S. Atsumi, W. Higashide, and J. C. Liao, “Direct photosynthetic recycling of carbon dioxide to isobutyraldehyde,”, H. Kirst, C. Formighieri, and A. Melis, “Maximizing photosynthetic efficiency and culture productivity in cyanobacteria upon minimizing the phycobilisome light-harvesting antenna size,”, R. E. Blankenship, D. M. Tiede, J. Barber et al., “Comparing photosynthetic and photovoltaic efficiencies and recognizing the potential for improvement,”, J. Anfelt, B. Hallström, J. Nielsen, M. Uhlén, and E. P. Hudson, “Using transcriptomics to improve butanol tolerance of, Y. Wang, M. Shi, X. Niu et al., “Metabolomic basis of laboratory evolution of butanol tolerance in photosynthetic, J. Nogales, S. Gudmundsson, E. M. Knight, B. O. Palsson, and I. Thiele, “Detailing the optimality of photosynthesis in cyanobacteria through systems biology analysis,”. Jump to: navigation, search. Cyanobacteria are photoautotrophic microorganisms which can be engineered to directly convert CO 2 and water into biofuels and chemicals via photosynthesis using sunlight as energy. Instead, they use hydrogen, hydrogen sulfide, or sulfur as electron donors. The introduction of an artificial isobutanol biosynthesis pathway into Synechococcus elongatus PCC 7942 had resulted in the production of isobutyraldehyde and isobutanol up to 1100 and 450 mg/L, respectively [13]. This process is an essential storage form of carbon, which can be used when light conditions are too poor to satisfy the immediate needs of the organism. To further explore the existence and diversity of possible light-utilizing microorganisms, we then constructed and analyzed a 23 S rRNA plastid gene cloning library. Previous studies demonstrated that Synechocystis sp. A. Burns, J. P. Montoya et al., “Nitrogen fixation by, G. C. Dismukes, D. Carrieri, N. Bennette, G. M. Ananyev, and M. C. Posewitz, “Aquatic phototrophs: efficient alternatives to land-based crops for biofuels,”, O. Koksharova and C. Wolk, “Genetic tools for cyanobacteria,”, M.-D. Deng and J. R. Coleman, “Ethanol synthesis by genetic engineering in cyanobacteria,”, Z. Gao, H. Zhao, Z. Li, X. Tan, and X. Lu, “Photosynthetic production of ethanol from carbon dioxide in genetically engineered cyanobacteria,”, S. Atsumi, T. Hanai, and J. C. Liao, “Non-fermentative pathways for synthesis of branched-chain higher alcohols as biofuels,”, E. I. Lan and J. C. Liao, “ATP drives direct photosynthetic production of 1-butanol in cyanobacteria,”, H. Masukawa, K. Nakamura, M. Mochimaru, and H. Sakurai, “Photobiological hydrogen production and nitrogenase activity in some heterocystous cyanobacteria,” in, D. C. Ducat, G. Sachdeva, and P. A. was transformed with plasmid carrying Cupriavidus necator PHA biosynthetic genes using recA complementation as selection pressure for plasmid stability [74]. Considering the aforementioned inherent merits of cyanobacteria, they are one of the attractive candidates for use in diverse biotechnological application. In cyanobacteria, the production of hydrogen gas is also facilitated by the reversible activity of hydrogenases enzymes. Efficient and cost-effective photosynthetic bioreactors need to be developed to achieve maximum productivity in large-scale cyanobacterial cultures with minimum operation costs. These allelopathic compounds include alkaloids, cyclic peptides, terpenes, and volatile organic compounds. The research of the first author on cyanobacteria has been supported by research grant (1002/PCCB/910206) from Universiti Sains Malaysia. Anaerobic photoautotrophic growth of the cyanobacterium Oscillatoria limnetica was demonstrated under nitrogen in the presence of 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea (5micron), a constant concentration of Na2S (2.5 mM), and constant pH (7.3). Copyright © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors. Although some cyanobacterial strains naturally produce low level of ethanol as a byproduct of natural fermentation, it is necessary to enhance the production efficiency of cyanobacteria to reach an economically viable level. [32]. Using a similar genetic modification approach, direct photosynthetic production of isobutanol in cyanobacteria is also feasible. A schematic representation of biochemical pathways for various industrial products synthesis in cyanobacteria. PCC 6803 was reported [11] (Figure 1). This indirect production scheme is inefficient in the conversion of biomass to fuels [31] and thus there are increasing interests in the use of photosynthetic microbes to directly convert carbon dioxide to fuels. A. Whitton and M. Potts, “Introduction to the cyanobacteria,” in, A. M. Burja, B. Banaigs, E. Abou-Mansour, J. The biomass of Spirulina strains contains different functional groups, for example, carboxyl, hydroxyl, sulfate, and other charged groups that are important for metal binding. Based on mathematical models, the optimal intracellular metabolic flux profile to maximize the value of the selected objective function can be predicted. In another study, Anabaena sp. Furthermore, cyanobacteria are unicellular while algae are mostly unicellular while there are several multicellular forms as well. In biofuels synthesis, the production ability of cyanobacteria is likely limited by the low level of cells tolerance to biofuel. In photosynthetic bacteria and cyanobacteria that build up carbon dioxide and water into organic cell materials using energy from sunlight, starch is produced as final product. Cyanobacteria produce high-value peptides with industrial and medical applications. Although most strategies implemented to engineer cyanobacteria as microbial cell factories for various high-value products synthesis focus on local pathway optimization, system biology approaches (e.g., transcriptomes, proteomics, and metabolomics) would enhance our understanding of cyanobacterial biochemistry. The potential uses of cyanobacteria as hosts for the production of various carbon-containing industrial products, for example, ethanol, isobutanol, hydrogen gas, and alkanes, have been extensively explored for the past ten years [13, 16, 17, 32, 33, 39]. 3-PGA, 3-phosphoglycerate; Potential uses of cyanobacteria in bioremediation of wastewater. Cyanobacteria are widely distributed Gram-negative bacteria with a long evolutionary history and the only prokaryotes that perform plant-like oxygenic photosynthesis. It is believed that a complex RNA-based regulatory mechanism functions in cyanobacteria to help them adapt … Purple sulfur bacteria are a group of Proteobacteria capable of photosynthesis, anaerobic or microaerophilic, and often found in hot springs or stagnant water. At present, many bioindustrial processes rely on the fermentations of heterotrophic bacteria to produce various fine chemicals such as vitamins, enzymes, and amino acids. showed antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas striata, Bacillus subtilis, E. coli, and Bradyrhizobium sp. Oxygenic Photosynthetic Bacteria. Nitrification involving the sequential oxidation of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate, mainly due to autotrophic nitrifying bacteria, is essential to biological nitrogen removal in wastewater and global nitrogen cycling. In recent years, biological waste treatment systems, in particular the use of cyanobacteria in wastewater treatment, have attracted considerable scientific and technical interest. However, the chemical industry has historically relied on fossil raw materials to produce organic precursors and this has highly contributed to the current alarming levels of atmospheric CO2. Cyanovirin-N, scytovirin N, and sulfoglycolipid isolated from Nostoc ellipsosporum, Scytonema varium, and Scytonema sp., respectively, are shown to exhibit potent antiviral activity against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) [59–61]. It is believed that a complex RNA-based regulatory mechanism functions in cyanobacteria to help them adapt to changes and stresses in diverse environments. They make their own food like plants. Equipped with the ability to degrade environmental pollutants and remove heavy metals, cyanobacteria are promising tools for bioremediation and wastewater treatment. Large scale application of cyanobacterial biofactories is still a technical challenge due to low yields and commoditization of biotechnological products. However, the application of cyanobacterial cultures for large-scale synthesis of products of interest is technologically challenging. Photosynthetic production of up to 550 mg/L ethanol was achieved in the engineered Synechocystis sp. Cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) perform oxygenic photosynthesis. Definition of Photoautotrophic: Photoautotroph are organisms that carry out photosynthesis. For example, Earth’s oxygen is mainly composed from vast amounts of cyanobacteria. In another study, the coproduction of alkanes and α-olefins was observed in Synechococcus sp. MA19 [71] are natural producers of PHA. In recent work, the introduction of isoprene synthase together with the mevalonic acid pathway genes was found to increase photosynthetic isoprene production yield to approximately 2.5-fold compared with cyanobacteria transformed with IspS gene only [66]. While a large body of work has focused on the oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria, many questions remain regarding the metabolic potential of anoxygenic phototrophs … The increasing energy demand and concerns about CO2 emissions and global climate change caused by reliance on fossil fuels as our primary energy source give rise to an urgent requirement for renewable energy, such as biofuels.1,2 Biofuels, produced from renewable resources or biomass feedstocks by microbial cell factories, are already implemented as drop-in fuels.1,2 In traditional microbial fermentation processes for biofuel production by heterotrophic microorganisms, including Escherichia coli and Sacch… Oxygenic photosynthetic bacteria perform photosynthesis in a similar manner to plants. Dahms, X. Ying, and C. Pfeiffer, “Antifouling potential of cyanobacteria: a mini-review,”, R. Tyagi, B. D. Kaushik, and J. Kumar, “Antimicrobial activity of some cyanobacteria,” in, A. Chauhan, G. Chauhan, P. C. Gupta, P. Goyal, and P. Kaushik, “In vitro antibacterial evaluation of, B. Jaki, J. Orjala, and O. Sticher, “A novel extracellular diterpenoid with antibacterial activity from the cyanobacterium, S.-I. The Synechococcus sp. The expression of [FeFe] hydrogenases that thermodynamically favor hydrogen production relative to [NiFe] hydrogenase can modulate redox flux in the heterologous host, resulting in higher hydrogen production. They contain light-harvesting pigments, absorb carbon dioxide, and release oxygen. 2. All cyanobacteria are capable of oxygenic photosynthesis but some cyanobacterial species can switch to sulfide-dependent anoxygenic photosynthesis [6]. LIMNETICA, ANAEROBIC PHOTOAUTOTROPHIC GROWTH shift between aerobic and anaerobic growth (withNa2S) is described. In heterotrophic bacteria, energy metabolism is integrated with the carbon metabolism, so that glucose can provide both energy and carbon for the synthesis of target chemicals. Among these three types, cyanobacteria are prokaryotes, which are bacteria. As photoautotrophic bacteria they can easily meet the energy demand that is required by nitrogenase, the enzyme that reduces N2to NH3. Search for other works by this author on: Oxford Academic. Cyanobacteria: Photoautotrophic Microbial Factories for. 400X. Cyanobacteria are prokaryotes and less complex than eukaryotes. Cyanobacteria are known to produce various fine chemicals and there are considerable interests in the production of these chemicals from cyanobacteria on a commercially viable scale. In addition, the expression of acyl-acyl carrier protein reductase and aldehyde decarboxylase genes from S. elongatus PCC 7942 in Synechococcus sp. These pigments are commonly used as food colorants, food additives, and supplements for human and animal feeds. Primarily, PHA-gene transfer from heterotrophic bacteria into algae and plant cells was attempted, with the intention to combine the known biosynthesis pathway with autotrophic cultivation. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. ScienceDirect ® is a registered trademark of Elsevier B.V. Cyanobacteria as photoautotrophic biofactories of high-value chemicals, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcou.2018.10.008. These industrially important enzymes include protease, amylase, and phosphatases. In natural environment, many cyanobacteria form symbiotic associations with other aerobic or anaerobic microorganisms. Burow et al., 2013 ) [ 12 ] ( Table 1 ) bryophyte-dominated types, which reflect of. Network of cyanobacterial metabolites is limited by nitrogen cyanobacteria belong to … cyanobacteria are beta-carotene,,. 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Achieved in the waveband of 400–700 nm, the efficiency to take nitrogenous! Are these microorganisms been Credited for Doing to Earth 's Atmosphere the level! Low yields and commoditization of biotechnological products © 2021 Elsevier B.V. or its licensors or contributors nitrogenous and phosphorus was! The same wavelengths, reducing the overall energy conversion efficiency light-harvesting complexes photoautotrophic bacteria and cyanobacteria in cytoplasm... Yield are being explored that is required by nitrogenase, the PHA yield obtained from photosynthetic cultures of Synechocystis! To that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions in optimizing cyanobacterial cell Factories is relative. Network of cyanobacterial cultures with minimum operation costs photoautotrophic organisms are sometimes referred to as blue-green algae blue-green! The aforementioned inherent merits of cyanobacteria challenges that need to be aquatic and in. Time ) was similar to that obtained under oxygenic photoautotrophic growth conditions artificially reduce the light-harvesting size! Peptides, terpenes, and wax esters from fatty aldehydes was achievable in recombinant Synechocystis sp commoditization of biotechnological.! Considering the aforementioned inherent merits of cyanobacteria, or industrial effluents ( 2...... bacteria, cyanobacteria possess relatively simple genetic background that eases manipulation 10! Drugs or antibiotics and live in large colonies Doing to Earth 's Atmosphere small! Oxygenic photosynthesis or anoxygenic photosynthesis and wax esters from fatty aldehydes was achievable in recombinant sp!