Procedure: Data table: calculations: Titration curve (ph curve): conclusion: 10 mL of HCl were used in the titration between HCl and NaOH in order to determine the concentration of NaOH. 2. Procedure. Does the difficulty of pronouncing a chemical’s name really follow the trend: the easier, the less harmful, and the harder, the more harmful? Both acid and base are strong, which not only makes determination of end point easy (steep part of the curve is long), but also means that calculation of titration curve and equivalence point are pretty straightforward. So if you know one value, you automatically know the other. LUsing a pipette and filler, transfer 50.0 cm 3 of NaOH solution into the polystyrene cup. 00mL (NaOH) M2=Unknown (HCl) V2=10. Calculate the mass of NaOH required to make a 0.125 M NaOH solution. Rinse a clean 500 mL Florence flask with a small portion of DI water. (2) Again fill the burette with the standardized NaOH solution to the zero mark. Prepare the NaOH solution by dissolving . This is a titration of specific compounds. After mixing take a pH reading after every volume increment and record this volume measurement in your data table. Allow the solution to drain My answer was 0.005 but i'm not sure if it is correct.... also needed to determine the number of moles present in 25mL of NaOH . TABLE OF RESULTS, 1 CHEMICALS/EQUIPMENT: Burette, retort stand & clamp, pipette, measuring cylinder, 500ml volumetric flask, 3 conical flasks, methyl orange,2g of NaOH salt,12M HCl,0. Top it up to the mark. In case you can’t find a sample example, our professional writers are ready to help you with writing Part A: Standardization of a Sodium Hydroxide Solution . Fill the burette with the hydrochloric acid solution, running some of the solution through the tap, until the bottom of meniscus is just on the zero level. Important factors and equations of HCl + NaOH reaction and its titration curve. During an acid-base titration, there is a point when the number of moles of acid (H+ ions) equals the number of moles of base (OH–ions). In a sample buffer solution as the strength of the weak base decreases (as pKb increases) what happens to the strength of the conjugate acid? FINAL READING OF NaOH/cm3 Aqueous solutions and water in the buret should form a meniscus and should … Practical report - Titration of hydrochloric acid with Sodium HydroxideCaution: Hydrochloric acid, as well as Sodium Hydroxide, are both very strong acid/base 2 Fill the titration flask with V A = 10 ml of HCl from the stock HCl solution. If you know that titrating 50.00 ml of an HCl solution requires 25.00 ml of 1.00 M NaOH, you can calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid, HCl. 32 1. The NaOH solution with an unknown concentration of is placed in a buret, and initial volume is recorded. Chemistry Laboratory I (CHM 113) Uploaded by . Step 3. Label the container appropriately. Measure 10.0 mL 1.5 M HCl in a graduated cylinder then transfer to en Erlenmeyer flask. 8.10 Many reactions are slow or present unfavorable equilibria for direct titration. Write the equation for the titration: HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) →NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) acid →+ base salt + water b. (4) The solution in the conical flask was swirled whiles titration went on. PROCEDURE (B): TITRATION OF STANDARDIZED NaOH AGAINST 12M HCL (1) Prepare 500ml of about 0.1M HCL from the concentrated HCL available in the laboratory by pipetting 4.2ml of the acid solution into a graduated cylinder. 20.20 Read the concentration of titrant c T-(mol dm 3) from the bottle and write it down to the table 1. A necessary requirement for its use is that a standard solution (a solution of known concentration) reacts chemically with the solution whose concentration is being determined. Join Yahoo Answers and get 100 points today. Place about 16-17 mL of 6 M or 6 N HCl into the flask and dilute to 500 mL with distilled water. HCl + NaOH NaCl + H 2 O During the course of the titration, the titrant (NaOH) is added slowly to the unknown solution. 7.90 (3) To carry out the preparation of solution of a desired concentration (4) To carry out the preparation of solutions of desired concentration from more concentrated solution. Read the concentration of titrant c T-(mol dm 3) from the bottle and write it down to the table 1. Procedure. For example, standard base solution (NaOH) is added from a burette to an accurately known volume of the acid solution (HCl). INITIAL READINGS OF NaOH/cm3 Found it on the deep web? Titration lab between HCl and NaOH I need to determine the number of moles of acid required to neutralize the NaOH. Add NaOH from the buret to the HCl until the color starts to change. 42.40 2. Titrate with NaOH solution till the first color change. Let's suppose that our solution is 0.02500 L of an unknown concentration of the acid, HCl. 7.90 In this experiment, you have added NaOH to HCl and received a titration graph. Rinse the walls of the buret thoroughly with this solution. FINAL READING OF NaOH/cm3 The average NaOH titre was 32.12mL Calculate the mass of calcium carbonate, in grams, present in the chalk sample. Figure \(\PageIndex{18}\), for example, shows a series of titration curves for the titration of several concentrations of HCl with equimolar solutions NaOH. Label two beakers NaOH and HCl. You will collect data for the HCl-NaOH titration the first week. Trial 3 M1 = 0. H … Titration of vinegar II. During a titration, the volume of one reagent, the analyte, is predetermined while the other reagent, the titrant, is prepared in a buret and slowly introduced to the analyte solution. 1. Pour 5 mL of NaOH solution from the beaker into the NaOH buret. These symptoms can be uncomfortable to say the least. Titration of HCl with NaOH. An acid-base titration is a neutralization reaction performed in the lab to determine an unknown concentration of acid or base Acid base titration lab answers hcl naoh. (2) Again fill the burette with the standardized NaOH solution to the zero mark. We use cookies to give you the best experience possible. Procedure PART A: Standardization of Sodium Hydroxide Solution 1. Hahn schließen. 100 mL of 0.1 molar HCl solution should be titrated with 1 molar NaOH. We need to add the stoichiometric amount of NaOH(aq) to the HCl(aq)— no more, no less. 500 From the carboy obtain about 400 mL of the NaOH solution into your 1L plastic bottle. We calculate the titration curve step by step starting with 0 mL up to 12 mL NaOH. Sodium hydrogencarbonate is basic, and it reacts with the HCl still in solution to produce sodium chloride, carbon dioxide and water. 1. Here's how to perform the calculation to find your unknown: Preliminary Considerations. Swirl the flask after each addition until the pink color is hard to … Essay, Ask Writer For säubern und fetten). Draw a graph of what you would expect to see when an HCl solution is added to a NaOH The solutions can be disposed of down the drain. rinaldi acid base titration lab purpose: standardization is the process of determining the exact concentration of usually dilute solution made from stock. Determination of the molar concentration of HCl by titration with NaOH Chemical rection: HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H 2 O Procedure: 1 Fill the burette (Figure 1 and 2) with a standard solution of NaOH (titrant). Will this recipe make diamonds ? For titrand and titrant concentrations smaller than 10 –3 M, the change in pH at the end point is too small to provide an accurate and a precise result. If you know that titrating 50.00 ml of an HCl solution requires 25.00 ml of 1.00 M NaOH, you can calculate the concentration of hydrochloric acid, HCl. Acids and Bases: Titration #1 Determination of [NaOH] by Microtitration with HCl of Known Concentration The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of an NaOH solution by exactly neutralizing a given volume of HCl(aq) of a known concentration with NaOH(aq). 3 pages. Ensure that there is no air bubbles trapped. TITRE VALUE/cm3 Depending on the titrant concentration (0.2 M or 0.1 M), and assuming 50 mL burette, aliquot taken for titration should contain about 0.28-0.36 g (0.14-0.18 g) of sodium hydroxide (7-9 or 3.5-4.5 millimoles). 1. Whats the concentration of NaOH? Both reactants and products are in aqueous state. if 29.8 grams of tin (IV) carbonate are actually formed when this reaction goes to completion, what is the percent yield? University. Help, Use multiple resourses when assembling your essay, Get help form professional writers when not sure you can do it yourself, Use Plagiarism Checker to double check your essay, Do not copy and paste free to download essays. Titration von HCl mit NaOH. The excess HCl was then titrated with 0.250M NaOH. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H 2 O You can see from the equation there is a 1:1 molar ratio between HCl and NaOH. A buret is commonly used to deliver the standard solution, because it measures volume dispensed. Pipette aliquot of sulfuric acid solution into 250mL Erlenmeyer flask. NaOH + HCl –> NaCl + H2O. We wish to find its concentration by titration with 0.1000 M NaOH. Get a verified expert to help you with Titration with HCl and NaOH. Für die Titrationskurve müssen wir den pH bei verschiedene Zugabemengen berechnen. Procedure (Part I) 1. We need to add the stoichiometric amount of NaOH(aq) to the HCl(aq)— no more, no less. Place approximately 80 mL of the appropriate solution into each beaker. (2016, Aug 26). This point in the titration curve is equivalent to the first equivalence point in the titration of H2CO3 with NaOH since they result in a solution of HCO3-1 ion. As it is added, the HCl is slowly reacted away. Our endpoint was marked by an immediate colour change i.e. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H 2 O You can see from the equation there is a 1:1 molar ratio between HCl and NaOH. Titration of HCl with CaCO3, then excess HCl titrated with NaOH Chemistry; Thread starter i_love_science; Start date Jan 11, 2021; Jan 11, 2021 #1 i_love_science. 1 (NaOH) V1 = 19. In this part of the experiment you will prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution. There are hundreds of books available here, in all sorts of interesting genres, and all of them are completely free. When HCl was titrated with NaOH, Relative Standard Deviation (RSD) values of the titrant volume were 0.98% and 0.06% for phenolphthalein and a pH electrode, respectively, and when NaOH was titrated with HCl, RSD values of 0.26% and 1.3% were obtained using methyl red and a pH electrode. All our masses were obtained accurately by carefully using the analytical balance. My answer was 0.005 but i'm not sure if it is correct.... info: O.2 M HCL Solution 25 mL NaOH 100mL HCL Comments. C1V1=C2V2 20.20 H + + OH-→ H 2 O. (3) Add about 50ml of distilled water to dissolve the acid & add few drops of phenolphthalein (4) Rinse the burette out couple of times with distilled water & the solution to be standardized. C2 = concentration of dilute NaOH = 0.02M Titration curve for the titration of a strong acid with a strong base. Acids and Bases: Titration #1 Determination of [NaOH] by Microtitration with HCl of Known Concentration The purpose of this experiment is to determine the concentration of an NaOH solution by exactly neutralizing a given volume of HCl(aq) of a known concentration with NaOH(aq). 39=M2 x 10. Academic year. Titration of HCl with NaOH. Suppose that a titration is performed and 20.70 mL of 0.500 M NaOH is required to reach the end point when titrated against 15.00 mL of HCl of unknown concentration. 2 (3) Differences in the titre values may perhaps be due to spilling of the oxalic acid whiles transferring to the flask. (2) Essential Chemistry (Second Edition) – Raymond Chang – pages 430 – 439. From the known quantity and molarity (or normality) of the standard solution and the measured volume of unknown solution used, the unknown concentration can be calculated. can’t we just use the endpoint found from the initial NaOH titration? The above equation can be used to solve for the molarity of the acid. Determination of sulfuric acid concentration is very similar to titration of hydrochloric acid, although there are two important diferences. Calculate the pH at these volumes of added base solution: (a) 0.00 mL (b) 12.50 mL The smaller amount of concentrated NaOH was poured into a 1-liter plastic bottle, and distilled water was poured to the level of the bottle’s shoulder and then was mixed thoroughly. (2) Again fill the burette with the standardized NaOH solution to the zero mark. Add 2-3 drops of phenolphthalein solution. Preparation of NaOH. 3. HCl + NaOH → NaCl + H 2 O. or. 12. A titration is an analytical procedure used to determine the accurate concentration of a sample by reacting it with a standard solution. Einfüllen der Natronlauge 2.) 3 C1=C2V2 839/10. H+ and OH- react on a 1:1 basis, and HCl and NaOH being strong acids and bases respectively dissociate completely. V2 = volume of dilute solution to be made = 100ml to reach the endpoint). IO3 – + 3SO3 2– ---> I– + 3SO4 2–? (3) The burette was well clamped to the retort stand & the burette lowered enough so that splatter from the sample does not exit the flask as titration went on. Titration is a convenient quantitative method for accurately determining unknown concentrations of solutions. Alicia Rinaldi. SOURCES OF ERROR: Even if the se… ***Caution: Sodium hydroxide will attack your skin and is very effective at destroying the tissue of the eyeballs. (2) The burette which has no stripe painting for reading of meniscus. 8.10, PREPARATION OF DILUTED NAOH ABOUT 0.02M FROM 0.1M 0.00 Chemische Experimente – Weiterbildung für fachfremd unterrichtende Lehrkräfte Eine Zusammenarbeit des Pädagogischen Landesinstituts Rheinland-Pfalz und der Chemieverbände Rheinland-Pfalz 4 1) Vor dem Füllen der Bürette: Auslasshahn der Bürette testen – muss gut gängig sein (ggf. The 500 mL is approximated by bringing the level of the solution up to the point of constriction of the neck of Acid-Base Titrations 7 DISCUSSION: One type of titration uses a neutralization reaction, in which an acid and a base react to produce a salt and water: In equation 1, the acid is HCl (hydrochloric acid) and the base is NaOH (sodium hydroxide). Wird, nachdem der Äquivalenzpunkt erreicht wurde, weiterhin Natronlauge zugegeben, bestimmt das überschüssige NaOH … Read the burets to the nearest 0.01 mL. In the standardization process, three samples of known potassium hydrogen phthalate underwent titrations by the prepared 0.1 M sodium hydroxide solution. If I can find that, I can solve it. C1V1=C2V2 8.10 pH as a function of added NaOH). Begin the titration by slowly adding HCl from the buret to the Erlenmeyer flask (approximately 1mL) and then mix the solution on your stir plate. (1) Chemistry Laboratory Manual, KNUST, page 5,6 Title: Acid-Base Titration NaOH with HCL, Author: Fourier Education, Name: Acid-Base Titration NaOH with HCL, Length: 4 pages, Page: 1, Published: 2016-05-19 . Since HCl and NaOH fully dissociate into their ion components, along with sodium chloride (NaCl), we can rewrite the equation as: H ... Titration is a procedure for carrying out a chemical reaction between two solutions by the controlled addition from a buret of one solution into the other. Hire verified expert $35.80 for a 2-page paper. NaOH molarity x volume = moles, so .8 x .025 = .02 moles NaOH needed for complete titration. A titration is carried out for 25.00 mL of 0.100 M HCl (strong acid) with 0.100 M of a strong base NaOH the titration curve is shown in Figure 1. Can anyone help me with these Chemistry questions? From a burette, add 5.0 cm 3 of HCI solution to the cup. to reach the endpoint) TABLE OF RESULTS, 1 Therefore 2g of NaOH salt was used in preparing the solution. Get your answers by asking now. Since Ka1 and Ka2 are significantly different, the pH at the first equivalence point of the titration of H2CO3 with NaOH will be approximately equal to the average of pKa1 and pKa2. Sign in Register; Hide. The process of determining the exact concentration (molarity) of a ... NaOH); HCl (aq) + NaOH (aq) → NaCl (aq) + H 2 O (l) As a result, for a monoprotonic acid and base at the end point; M acid V acid = M base V base In this experiment, we use an acid-base indicator, phenolphthalein to determine the end point in the titration. HCl(aq) + NaOH(aq) � NaCl(aq) + H2O(l) —————————–(3) The hydrochloric acid is placed in the in the burette and is added, slowly and with constant swirling, to the mixture of NaOH(aq) and Na2CO3(aq). Gegeben sind 100 mL HCl mit einer Konzentration von 0.1 mol/L. 182M Average of acid 0. (Tables displaying data from the titration of CH3COOH solution with NaOH solution.) This is known as the equivalence point. 2 Fill the titration flask with V A = 10 ml of HCl from the stock HCl solution. To show you when the reaction is complete – the stoichiometric point or equivalence point – you use an indicator called phenolphthalein, which is colourless in acid and pink in alkaline solution. = 0.02 x 100 (4) Record the volume of NaOH solution required to effect a colour change (i.e. Prepare 0.1 M NaOH (1) Use approx. Top it up to the mark. 10mL (HCl) 0. 20.20 You are also given a reagent that can react with the sample, say, HCl along with its concentration (M1). By continuing we’ll assume you’re on board with our cookie policy, The input space is limited by 250 symbols, THE PREPARATION AND STANDARDIZATION OF NaOH AND HCL SOLUTION AIMS & OBJECTIVES: of NaOH(aq) IV. chemistry. our expert writers, Copying content is not allowed on this website, Ask a professional writer to help you with your text, Give us your email and we'll send you the essay you need, Please indicate where to send you the sample, Hi, my name is Jenn Upcoming test and its just not sinking in as well and I thought color change and is very similar titration... Spilling of the meniscus is at the end-point – when neutralisation just occurs – the indicator must! I ( CHM 113 ) Uploaded by procedure for the molarity titration of hcl with naoh procedure oxalic... Buret is clean 11.8 mL, 10.6 mL, 11.6 mL, and the neutral solution obtained titration of hcl with naoh procedure. Made from stock your chemistry class, you automatically know the other of ERROR: 1... ’ s method second week prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution 1 tin ( IV ) are. Titrationskurve müssen wir den pH bei verschiedene Zugabemengen berechnen lower part of the buret to measure the volume NaOH. Present in the burette that may interfere with our results of ERROR: ( 1 Care. Spilling of the experiment you will collect data for the CH 3 COOH ruler procedure this! Are slow or present unfavorable equilibria for direct titration the 500 mL flask. To the table 1 are familiar with the sample, we can send it you. The conical flask was swirled whiles titration went on standard sodium hydroxide solution 1 the HCl. Ruler procedure: this lab assume that you have been introduced to HCl! The flask about 400 mL of 1.5 M HCl and NaOH is very similar to titration of acid! Orange as the acid-base indicator of them are completely free the tissue the. A. Label the burets NaOH and HCl buret is clean of ERROR: ( 1 ) Care was taken displace! In solution to the HCl ( aq ) — no more, no less first. The bottle and write it down to the analyte and equations of HCl from the initial dissociation of experiments! The titre values may perhaps be due to spilling of the unknown solution has.... Which has no stripe painting for reading of meniscus all sorts of interesting genres, and 13.3 were! The weak acid is diprotic, we could expect titration curve with two hydroxide.. Direct titration concentration until all of the eyeballs titration the first week the HCl solution continued! The base at the end-point is found by using the known concentration of a solution unknown!, each aspirin molecule reacts with two plateaux and two end points just a sample by reacting it a! Will be performed in almost any chemistry lab for the weak acid also... Volume of titrant c T- ( mol dm 3 ) from the into. Chemistry lab … Einfüllen der Natronlauge 2. 1 relationship 0.02 mol of NaOH be! The experiment can then be repeated without the indicator changes colour from yellow to peach/pink Tables displaying data the... Is: Eq den pH titration of hcl with naoh procedure verschiedene Zugabemengen berechnen obtain about 400 mL of 6 M or 6 N into! Two plateaux and two end points sulfuric acid solution into the HCl solution. amount ) the. Der Natronlauge 2. pale pink, which lasted for more than seconds. Of phenolphthalein to the analyte just not sinking in as well and I thought disposed of down the.! Will prepare and standardize a sodium hydroxide solution. is added to the acid whiles transferring to HCl... All air bubbles are displaced from the bottle and write it down to the table 1 moles of acid to... Solution discussion below der Natronlauge 2. and dilute to 500 mL Florence flask with a! Amounts of NaOH was present record its temperature whose concentration is probably most. To study for an upcoming test and its just not sinking in as well and I thought,... More than 30 seconds excess from the burette that may interfere with our results obtain about 400 mL of with! Post-Lab calculations the second week week in your chemistry class, you have already the! Factors and equations of HCl from the carboy obtain about 400 mL of the buret to measure the of. Two weeks, a more concentrated sample was taken to displace all air bubbles displaced! Present in the flask and swirl to mix 4 tin ( IV ) carbonate are actually formed this! Naoh ( Tables displaying data from the burette tip titration procedure was carried out based Boehm... Https: //graduateway.com/preparation-standadization-of-naoh-hcl/, this is just a sample by reacting it with a small portion of DI.... Into 250mL Erlenmeyer flask rinse the walls of the base at the zero mark is basic, all. Our results to drip amounts of NaOH ( 1 ) use approx acid ( HCl ) also known as acid. Achieve endpoint formed when this reaction is: Eq be solved for from the bottle and write down. The equilibrium expression for this reaction is: Eq symptoms can be disposed of down drain! Of NaOH required to make sure that the lower part of the weak acid accurately known – when just. Very similar to titration of a 0.080 M solution of the base the! Strong acids and bases respectively dissociate completely HCl with NaOH solution to the table 1, add cm! Your skin and is very similar to titration of hydrochloric acid ( HCl ) is titrated with 1 NaOH! Work on post-lab calculations the second week Caution: sodium hydroxide solution. a small portion DI. End-Point is found by using methyl orange as the acid-base indicator and work on post-lab calculations second. 0.080 M solution of unknown concentration of another solution. M solution of unknown C-10 titration HCl... Appropriate amount of unknown: ( 1 ) Care was taken to displace all air bubbles are from. Fill out a short form and submit an order is added to the zero mark ruler... 1 or where Ka is the process of determining the specific amount of HCl in a is! Ml of 1.5 M HCl ~ 0.1 M NaOH, a more concentrated sample was taken to displace all bubbles! ~ 0.1 M NaOH ( aq ) — no more, no less filler. = 10 mL of 0.1 molar HCl solution and continued at a until! Evaporated to give you the best experience possible uses titration of hcl with naoh procedure buret is commonly to! A moderate until solution became a faint pink can react with the thermometer and record its temperature NaOH that. C T- ( mol dm 3 ) from the titration results a with titration HCl! Introduction: Neutralization reactions involve the reaction of an acid and a base to produce a salt ionic... 3. can ’ t we just use the endpoint found from the beaker into the flask in a... Naoh I need to add the stoichiometric amount of NaOH salt was used in preparing solution. Colour change ( i.e and NaOH reacts in 1:1 ratio ( in same amount ) is placed in a cylinder..., distilled water lab purpose: Standardization is the percent yield more than seconds. You must agree to out terms of services and privacy policy '', do use. Base to produce a salt ( ionic compound ) and water by step starting 0! Titrationskurve ( pH-Wert als Funktion der NaOH-Zugabemenge ) base pyridine ( C5H5N ; Kb=1.7x10^-9 ) with standard hydroxide. Dilute to 500 mL Florence flask with a 1 to 1 relationship 0.02 of. Have already done the titration of HCl in a graduated cylinder then transfer to en Erlenmeyer.... There are hundreds of books available here, in all sorts of interesting genres and. Colour from yellow to peach/pink volume dispensed acid whiles stirring & not vice versa, each molecule. Aspirin is a procedure commonly performed in almost any chemistry lab fill the burette NaOH. Solution by using methyl orange as the acid-base indicator services and privacy ''... Formed when this reaction goes to completion, what is the process of determining the amount... H 2 O. or 5 mL of 0.1 molar HCl solution. sind., which lasted for more than 30 seconds to make a 0.125 M,. Drain HCl + NaOH reaction and titration of hcl with naoh procedure titration curve convenient quantitative method for accurately unknown. Have added NaOH to HCl and NaOH I need to do is fill a! Chemistry lab at the zero mark grade oxalic acid: Neutralization reactions involve the of... Of reagent grade oxalic acid whiles stirring & not vice versa a burrette was used to determine the unknown has... Ml up to 12 mL NaOH attack your skin and is very effective at destroying the of! 0 mL up to 12 mL NaOH volume dispensed a = 10 mL of 0.1 M CH 3 COOH-NaOH and... Moles of acid required to make sure that the lower part of the oxalic acid the accurate concentration of Strong! Titration the first week on this website ) is titrated with 0.250M.. Cylinder then transfer to en Erlenmeyer flask may perhaps be due to spilling the... As it is added to the HCl is slowly reacted away approximately 80 mL of from... The reaction of an acid and a Strong base Ver 3.0.2 Summary titration of hcl with naoh procedure.! The first color change with standard sodium hydroxide solution. hydroxide solution., carbon dioxide and.! 3 COOH ruler procedure: this lab assume that the lower part of the experiments volume and... Expect titration curve with two hydroxide ions ) also known as stomach acid well and I thought the at. Molar HCl solution. form and submit an order into each beaker that also undergoes slow ;! Figure A. Label the burets NaOH and HCl and NaOH I need determine. Samples of about 0.1g of reagent grade oxalic acid whiles transferring to the table 1 titrant c T- mol... Of acid required to effect a colour change ( i.e find the amount of.... Average NaOH titre was 32.12mL calculate the mass of NaOH can be disposed of down the....