Several modern Arabic dialects are used in everyday life, most notably Levantine in the west and Mesopotamian in the northeast. [176] This law led to the creation of the Ministry of Labor and Social Affairs, which announced the implementation of new laws that would allow the regulation of working condition especially for women and adolescents, set hours of work, and introduce the principle of minimum wage for paid laborers and an equitable division of harvest for sharecroppers. There will be additional sanctions implemented in August, in three different groups. The central bank also noted that "the banking sector is still recording good performance indicators, which enhances its ability to face challenges and crises". [138], The Personal Status Law 59 of 1953 (amended by Law 34 of 1975) is essentially a codified sharia. Convenience of Single Personal Identification Number for all electronic channels including Internet, Mobile, Phone and ATM Banking. By the 21st century BC, Hurrians settled the northern east parts of Syria while the rest of the region was dominated by the Amorites, Syria was called the Land of the Amurru (Amorites) by their Assyro-Babylonian neighbors. Petroleum became Syria's leading natural resource and chief export after 1974. [68] By the end of the 15th century, the discovery of a sea route from Europe to the Far East ended the need for an overland trade route through Syria. "President Obama believes there must be accountability for those who would use the world's most heinous weapon against the world's most vulnerable people. [54] Thus in the Greco-Roman world both the Arameans of Syria and the Assyrians of Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) to the east were referred to as "Syrians" or "Syriacs", despite these being distinct peoples in their own right, a confusion which would continue into the modern world. He returned to Syria in 1937 after the signing of the Syrian-French Treaty. Syria entered on the invitation of Suleiman Franjieh, the Maronite Christian president at the time to help aid the Lebanese Christian militias against the Palestinian militias. The most popular sports in Syria are football, basketball, swimming, and tennis. [205], The road network in Syria is 69,873 kilometres (43,417 miles) long, including 1,103 kilometres (685 miles) of expressways. After a century of Seljuk rule, Syria was largely conquered (1175–1185) by the Kurdish liberator Salah ad-Din, founder of the Ayyubid dynasty of Egypt. This language was to remain dominant in Syria and the entire Near East until after the Arab Islamic conquest in the 7th and 8th centuries AD, and was to be a vehicle for the spread of Christianity. [149] About 20,000 Syrian soldiers were deployed in Lebanon until 27 April 2005, when the last of Syria's troops left the country after three decades. [76] Their president Shukri al-Quwwatli instructed his troops in the front, "to destroy the Zionists". The largest concentration of the Syrian diaspora outside the Arab world is in Brazil, which has millions of people of Arab and other Near Eastern ancestries. This was soon followed by another overthrow, by Col. Sami al-Hinnawi, who was himself quickly deposed by Col. Adib Shishakli, all within the same year. Palmyra, a rich and sometimes powerful native Aramaic-speaking kingdom arose in northern Syria in the 2nd century; the Palmyrene established a trade network that made the city one of the richest in the Roman empire. [23][24] Mainstream modern academic opinion strongly favors the argument that the Greek word is related to the cognate Ἀσσυρία, Assyria, ultimately derived from the Akkadian Aššur. There are no reliable estimates of their total population, with estimates ranging from several hundred thousand to 3.5 million.[221][222][223]. [152], The western two-thirds of Syria's Golan Heights region are since 1967 occupied by Israel and were in 1981 effectively annexed by Israel,[153][154] whereas the eastern third is controlled by Syria, with the UNDOF maintaining a buffer zone in between, to implement the ceasefire of the Purple Line. "Arab League delegates head to Syria over 'bloodbath'. [113], On 11 June, Prime Minister Imad Khamis was dismissed by President Bashar al-Assad, amid anti-government protests over deteriorating economic conditions. [137], Syria's judicial branches include the Supreme Constitutional Court, the High Judicial Council, the Court of Cassation, and the State Security Courts. Thus, it was the Greeks who introduced the name "Syria" to the region. [182] In the third year of the Syrian Civil War, the deputy economy minister Salman Hayan stated that Syria's two main oil refineries were operating at less than 10% capacity.[201]. From the Arab league, Syria continues to maintain diplomatic relations with Algeria, Egypt, Iraq, Lebanon, Sudan and Yemen. 53 on 21 April 2011. The uprising had reached its climax in the 1982 Hama massacre,[89] when some 10,000 – 40,000 people were killed by regular Syrian Army troops. Outgoing international fee. Arabic – made official under Umayyad rule[62] – became the dominant language, replacing Greek and Aramaic of the Byzantine era. [197], On 27 January 2020, the Baniyas oil refinery of Syria was attacked by militants by the means of explosives on underwater pipelines. According to The Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, in addition to Arabic, the following languages are spoken in the country, in order of the number of speakers: Kurdish,[233] Turkish,[233] Neo-Aramaic (four dialects),[233] Circassian,[233] Chechen,[233] Armenian,[233] and finally Greek. The Bank will not sell or distribute your personal information to third parties unless it has your permission or is required by law to do so. The situation for human rights in Syria has long been a significant concern among independent organizations such as Human Rights Watch, who in 2010 referred to the country's record as "among the worst in the world. Dumat Al-Jandal was 800 kilometres (500 mi) from Medina, and Watt says that there was no immediate threat to Muhammad, other than the possibility that his communications to Syria and supplies to Medina being interrupted. Syrian soap operas have considerable market penetration throughout the eastern Arab world. [198] The following month, ISIS blew up a gas pipeline to Damascus that was used to generate heating and electricity in Damascus and Homs; "the name of its game for now is denial of key resources to the regime" an analyst stated. The city of Aleppo is known for its muwashshah, a form of Andalous sung poetry popularized by Sabri Moudallal, as well as for popular stars like Sabah Fakhri. Gulf African Bank is 12 years old, also marking 12 years since Shari’ah compliant banking - pioneered by the Bank - successfully debuted in the Kenyan market offering Kenyans an innovative financing and investing model underpinned by trust and ethics. Television was introduced to Syria and Egypt in 1960, when both were part of the United Arab Republic. [232], Arabic is the official language of the country. Damascus was home to the fifth and seventh Pan Arab Games. The Egyptians fought the Hittites for control over western Syria; the fighting reached its zenith in 1274 BC with the Battle of Kadesh. The Bank may contact you by email, phone, fax or mail and may use the information provided to customise the Website according to your interests. $15 to $25 for receiving money from an overseas bank account. The following Neolithic period (PPNB) is represented by rectangular houses of Mureybet culture. The Bank will not collect any information about you except where it is knowingly provided to us through this Website. The Bank will not be responsible for any losses or delays in transmission of instructions arising or caused by any browser software. We've developed a suite of premium Outlook features for people with advanced email and calendar needs. The process was completed with the establishment of the State of Israel in 1948. During the fall of Assyria, the Scythians ravaged and plundered much of Syria. Continuing pressure from Syrian nationalists and the British forced the French to evacuate their troops in April 1946, leaving the country in the hands of a republican government that had been formed during the mandate. In 1516, the Ottoman Empire invaded the Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt, conquering Syria, and incorporating it into its empire. [190] Unemployment is high at above 10%. [45] The army of Yamhad campaigned as far away as Dēr on the border of Elam (modern Iran). Syria's legislative branch is the unicameral People's Council. [234] Importance is placed on family, religion, education, self-discipline and respect. Islamic jurisprudence is a main source of legislation and Syria's judicial system has elements of Ottoman, French, and Islamic laws. [184] At the outset of the ongoing Syrian Civil War, Syria was classified by the World Bank as a "lower middle income country. [225] The majority of Arab Argentines are from either Lebanese or Syrian background. Today only a few Jews remain in Syria. [27], By Pliny's time, however, this larger Syria had been divided into a number of provinces under the Roman Empire (but politically independent from each other): Judaea, later renamed Palaestina in AD 135 (the region corresponding to modern-day Israel, the Palestinian Territories, and Jordan) in the extreme southwest; Phoenice (established in AD 194) corresponding to modern Lebanon, Damascus and Homs regions; Coele-Syria (or "Hollow Syria") south of the Eleutheris river, and Iraq.[28]. Prior to the Arab Islamic Conquest in the 7th century AD, the bulk of the population were Arameans, but Syria was also home to Greek and Roman ruling classes, Assyrians still dwelt in the north east, Phoenicians along the coasts, and Jewish and Armenian communities was also extant in major cities, with Nabateans and pre-Islamic Arabs such as the Lakhmids and Ghassanids dwelling in the deserts of southern Syria. Control of your Savings account, Fixed Deposits, and socialist movements, Israel. 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